Northern Mozambique Insurgency

Mozambique, South-East Africa

Since its first attack in 2017, the insurgency Ahlu Sunna Wa Jama (ASWJ), has greatly destabilized northern Mozambique, especially Cabo Delgado Province. While ASWJ initially targeted security forces, today the insurgency frequently targets civilians, burns down homes, and destroys crops. The group held Mocimboa da Praia from March 2020 to April 2021 and Palma in March and April 2021. While ASWJ aligned with the Islamic State (IS) in 2019, the extent of their coordination is unclear. When ASWJ captured Mocimboa da Praia in August 2020, IS published an inaccurate timeline of events, appearing largely dependent on think-tanks for information. Due to ASWJ’s secrecy and the government’s suppression of information, details about the group’s origins, funding and specific ideology are uncertain.

Analysts generally view the insurgency as rooted in local grievances, rather than the product of external forces. Local Islamic clerics, interviewed by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), claim the first signs of extremism started around 2014. Local youths, expelled from traditional mosques, started their own mosque with “strange beliefs and practices.” ASWJ was reportedly influenced by the ideas of Aboud Rogo Mohammed, an extremist Kenyan cleric.

ASWJ’s exact ideological beliefs still remain unclear, as ASWJ has produced little in the way of propaganda. Interestingly, Assaye Risk’s 2018 report indicates that the insurgents are more concerned with criminal activity than religious ideology. Supporting this, the Jamestown Foundation found the insurgents are at least partially funded through illegal ruby and timber
trafficking. Cabo Delgado is the poorest province in Mozambique and, in recent years, has suffered from multiple crises, including economic stagnancy, unseasonable and severe cyclones, and cholera and COVID-19 outbreaks. The insurgency often targets young Mwani men with little economic prospects.

Additionally, Cabo Delgado is home to three of the largest liquid natural gas (LNG) projects in Africa. The majority of jobs generated by these projects go to men from Mozambique’s capital, Maputo, sidelining the Mwani, whose cultural identity and livelihoods are strongly tied to the coastal region. Since independence in 1974, the Mwani have lost substantial economic power to the Maconde (President Nyusi’s ethnic group). Divisive colonial policies favoured the Mwani, and during the war for independence, many Mwani fought with Portugal. The war, which was primarily fought in Cabo Delgado, is still highly significant to tensions today. Notably, ASWJ sometimes refers to itself as Swahili Sunna, which experts view as an allusion to the Mwani’s history in the region. 

Despite the complex, interrelated challenges facing Cabo Delgado, the Nyusi government has largely focused on force, often to the detriment of human rights. Watchdog groups, such as Amnesty International, have released alarming allegations about government forces’ abuse of human rights, including torture and extrajudicial killings. Abuse allegations often go
uninvestigated, and perpetrators have little reason to believe they will be held accountable. 

Further, the government has worked to limit information about the conflict. During a press conference in February 2019, Governor Julio Parruque of Cabo Delgado announced that he would “no longer tolerate” journalists covering topics such as insurgent attacks, corruption, and drug trafficking. Journalists have been denied access to Cabo Delgado. Those covering the conflict have often been arbitrarily arrested. Some, like investigative journalist Ibraimo Mbaruco, have “gone missing” while seemingly in police custody. Tom Bowker, British co-founder of Zitamar News, was ordered to leave Mozambique in January 2021, the first expulsion of a foreign journalist in over 30 years. 

Until recently, the government denied the insurgency’s existence, arguably enabling it to grow. President Nyusi now acknowledges ASWJ’s existence, but he solely blames “external elites” for the conflict, dismissing local grievances. However, to effectively combat ASWJ, the government must address the complex humanitarian issues facing Cabo Delgado.

"The crisis is a complex security, human rights, humanitarian and development emergency, underscoring the imperative of continuing to provide life-saving assistance while collectively supporting Government-led long-term resilience building."

Key Facts


People killed


People Displaced in

Northern Mozambique

Ongoing for

5 years

Where: Cabo Delgado, Northern Mozambique

Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs):  The total number of IDPs in Cabo Delgada, Niassa, and Nampula Provinces is around 732,000. Between April 2020 and April 2021, the number of the IDPs in the three provinces more than quadrupled. 

People in need of Humanitarian Aid: 1.3 million in the three provinces, about 12% of the total regional population. 

Background Information:

Population Below the Poverty Line: 55% nationwide (IGC 2019), 50% in Cabo Delgado (UNDP 2015).

*Available data does not yet reflect the impact of escalating conflict in the region.

Key Economic Sectors: Agriculture, Mining, Fishing, Oil and Natural Gas

  • 88% of Cabo Delgado residents work in agriculture, fishing, or forestry (UNDP 2015)
  • Extractive industries (i.e. mining, oil and natural gas) are fast-growing, but generate few jobs (often with hazardous working conditions.

Literacy rate: 47% nationwide (World Bank 2018), 67% in Cabo Delgado (USAID 2020)

Environmental issues: Mozambique is extremely vulnerable to climate change. The country regularly faces increasingly severe droughts, cyclones, and floods. As many as 25% of the population faces a high mortality risk from environmental disasters (UNDP).

The Key Actors

The Situation

Classification: Localized Insurgency

Analyst’s suggestions:

  • Continued counter-insurgency and aid efforts, both from the Mozambican government and international community, are crucial to controlling the insurgency. Financial aid and reconstruction efforts will help alleviate poverty issues that fuel the insurgency. More military missions in the Cabo Delgado Province will minimize the risk of further attacks. Aid organizations need to be screening and monitoring their humanitarian workers to prevent sexual abuse of refugees. The Rwanda Defence Force (RDF) has extended its support in the fight against insurgents, and the Mozambique Armed Defence Forces (FADM) should continue
    to further develop this alliance.

Similar Humanitarian Crises

  • Boko Haram Insurgency, Sinai Insurgency, Al-Shabaab Insurgency


Counter-insurgency and aid efforts in Mozambique are underway: the World Bank pledged $100 million to support Cabo Delgado’s reconstruction plan, the EU sent 1,000 soldiers to train against the Insurgency, and the SADC announced they would be extending their military mission in the country. Aid has reached Palma in Cabo Delgado after it has not been able to come through for 6 months. Rwandan president Paul Kagame called for TotalEnergies to resume their multi-billion dollar Mozambique LNG project. Despite these improvements, there are reports of humanitarian workers in Mozambican refugee camps abusing women for aid and Al-Shabaab recruiting child soldiers in Cabo Delgado. Six months after Rwandan troops arrived in Mozambique, the Rwanda Defence Force (RDF) and Mozambique Armed Defence Forces (FADM) have agreed to establish joint security teams to bring stability to Cabo Delgado.


40 unidentified militants raid 3 police stations in Mocimboa da Praia, killing 17 people, including 2 police officers and a community elder. The militants managed to steal firearms and ammunition. Through police investigations, 14 of the 30 perpetrators were later captured. The survivors say that the militants said that they reject state health and education products, and do not pay taxes. In addition to capturing the 17 original perpetrators, the Mozambique police detained 52 suspected Ansar al-Sunna militants connected to the raid at police stations on 20 October 2017.

Fleeing residents state that Ansar al-Sunna militants and government forces are engaged in battle in Maluku village, 30 km outside Mocimboa da Praia. The skirmishes continue to Columbe village

Mozambique police announce the arrest of 100 Ansar al-Sunna suspected militants. The police say that the arrested individuals are connected to the October 5th raids. They added that some of the arrested include foreign nationals. Notably, the Nyusi government continuously characterizes the conflict as driven by foreign nationals, rather than locak grievances in the impoverished region.

Mozambican government announces the closure of three mosques in Cabo Delgado. The government says that the three mosques are liked to Islamic fundamentalism.

Suspected Ansar al-Sunna militants attack Mitumbate and Maculo villages, brutally killing two and injuring two others. According to the villagers, the bodies of the two killed victims were decapitated and then set on fire. Additionally, the militants destroyed at least 27 homes and a church.

Mocimboa da Praia district government names, Nuro Adremane, and Jafar Alawi, two Mozambican nationals as suspected organisers of the raids on police stations in October. The local government says that the two individuals have outside exposure, studying Islam in Tanzania, Sudan and Saudi Arabia. They also added that there is a possibility that they have received prior military training.

A local independent newspaper, “O Pais”, claims that Mozambican paratroopers and marines conduct operations in Mitumbate, possible Ansar al-Sunna stronghold. They came through the sea and by air. The newspaper alleges that at least 50 people killed, including women and children. It is unclear whether many of the dead were suspected militants.

An unspecified number of suspected Ansar al-Sunna militants attack a market and government administrative building in Olumbi town, Palma district. The attack resulted in the death of 5 people

A video posted on social media encourages people to join the fight for Islamic values and establish Islamic law as the law of the land. In the video, 6 unidentified men speak to the audience. The video is in both Portuguese and Arabic.

Unidentified men allegedly attack Chitolo village, according to Radio Mocambique. They claim that the raid resulted in the burning of 50 homes and the death of unspecified villagers

Unidentified men attack Diaca and Velha villages in Nangade district and Mangwaza village in Palma district. Reports indicate at least four houses were burnt, one person was killed and another three were abducted. The Mozambican security forces conducted operations to capture culprits. The security forces say they arrested 30 suspected militants

At least 90 ISIS militants have infiltrated northern Mozambique, Lowvelder reports, citing unnamed intelligence sources. The ISIS fighters reportedly came from Tanzania. The Mozambican government categorically denies the allegations. The spokesperson for the Mozambican police added that the country is protected by well-armed Frontier Guards. The allegation follows a similar report from the African Union stating that ISIS forces are present Mozambique.

According to a local newspaper, Mediafax, a policeman has been fired over allegations of assisting insurgents in northern Mozambique. The article cites two studies conducted by Institute of Economic and Social Studies and Civil Society Support Mechanisms which detail the history of Ansar al-Sunna in Mozambique, including how their fighters are trained. The studies say former policemen and frontier guards are still providing training to militants, according to the two studies.

Ten people, including children, are reportedly beheaded in Palma districts of Cabo Delgado province. One of the deceased is believed to be the leader of Monjane village. One of the residents said that the leader was targeted because he provides information to the police about the whereabouts of Ansar al-Sunna. Locals claim that Ansar al-Sunna, or al-Shabaab in their terms, is responsible for the killings.

US embassy warns its citizens about a possible attack in Cabo Delgado. This comes just 12 days after ten people, including children, were beheaded by suspected Ansar al-Sunna militants and five days before five people were decapitated in Macomia district. Two days before the warning, in Macomia district, six men armed with machetes and guns attacked Naunde village killing at least seven people and injuring four others.

Similar to incidents reported over the past three weeks, armed men with machetes and firearms have attacked a village, this time in Nangade district. Four people have been confirmed dead. Reports also indicate several homes were burnt.

On 12th, an unspecified number of armed men attack a village in Macomia district. One villager is decapitated, several animals are killed, and houses are burnt down.

Suspected Ansar al-Sunna militants kill 12 and injure another 15 people in Paqueue village] in Cabo Delgado province. Ten of the twelve were shot dead while the other two were burnt to death. It is being reported at one of the dead bodies was also decapitated postmortem

Mustafa Suale Machinga, suspected Ansar al-Sunna commander, arrested after residents captured him in Litingina village in Nangade district in Cabo Delgado province. The 30-year-old previously served in the Mozambican armed forces.

Suspected Ansar al-Sunna militants beheaded four people, including the head of the village, in Manila village in Mocimboa da Praia district. Five other people were seriously injured while six houses were burnt down.

A days later, four insurgents were captured in Palma. It is unclear whether the captured militants are the same ones as those who attacked a peasant couple in another neighbourhood in Palma a day prior. 1000 people have fled the area due to the increased terror threat.

Abdul Rahmin Faizal, a suspected insurgent from Uganda, was captured in Mozambique. Mozambican police say that Faizal is a senior figure within the growing insurgency movement in the northern part of the country. Faizal was arrested alongside three other Ugandan nationals. In a statement, the police commander in the region said that “these people are extremely dangerous. Their mission was to receive those recruited in Memba and other coastal districts and provide materials for attacks against Cabo Delgado communities. They buy knives, machetes and axes, which the criminals use to hack innocent Mozambicans to pieces. They were giving instructions on how to use these weapons.” The arrest comes just as another suspected Ansar al-Sunna militants attacked a village in Cabo Delgado district, killing and decapitating 7 men and kidnapping four women.

In March, according to Amnesty International, journalist Amade Abubacar, who was arrested 5 January 2019, is in critical condition indention. Amnesty International called for claims that Abubacar is ‘being ill-treated and denied medical treatment” to be “investigated thoroughly and transparently.” Amnesty International called upon the government to charge Amade with a “recognizable criminal offence or release him immediately and unconditionally.”

Abubacar was arrested by police while documenting deadly attacks by armed groups in Cabo Delgado province. He is being held at the Mieze Correctional Centre in Pemba district, Cabo Delgado province.

The cyclones marked the first time two cyclones hit Mozambique in the same season. Conditions were worsened by insurgents’ previous destruction of infrastructure and disruption of economic activity.

Following a historically severe cyclones, Mozambique experienced a cholera outbreak. By August 2019, there were 6,768 confirmed cases of cholera, 1,200 of which were in Cabo Delgado province. Unfortunately, 200,000 people were resettled over 5 km away from the nearest healthcare facility. Moreover, in affected provinces, 14% of healthcare facilities were damaged by the cyclones.

ISIS claims that their militants have successfully attacked the Mozambican army in Mitopy, Mocimboa da Praia district. The attack, they claim, killed at least 16 people and wounded 12 others. The group also claimed that they managed to capture weapons, including rocket-propelled grenades from the military. The police refuted ISIS’ claims. Researchers and analysts are skeptical over ISIS’ claims.

On 10 and 27 October, armed insurgents in Cabo Delgado province killed 7 mercenaries working for Wagner, the Kremlin-linked private military contractor. In the first incident, 2 soldiers were shot dead following an ambush in Macomia district. 17 days later, a second ambush resulted in the deaths of 5 soldiers in Muidumbe district. Reports say that four of the five were shot and then beheaded while the fifth died later in the hospital. 

UN refugee agency, UNHCR, reported that thousands of people in Cabo Delgado province are fleeing a recent escalation of violence and brutal attack by armed groups such as the locally known group, al-Shabaab. UNHCR spokesperson, Andrej Mahecic, says the violence has spread across nine of the 16 districts. The spokesperson did not place the blame on any specific group operating in the region.

As of March 2020, a year after cyclones Idai and Kenneth, 2.5 million are in need of humanitarian aid; 160,000 are displaced, and 715,378 hectares of crops have been destroyed. An estimated 1.6 million do not have enough food. Conflict in northern Mozambique has worsened the situation, as insurgents destroy infrastructure and families stop tending to crops due to fear of terrorist attacks.

Local reports indicate that insurgents, locally known as Al-Shabaab, sieze control of Mocimboa de Praia. According to the police, militants staged an overnight attack on the town taking over a military base and raising their flag. Local media reports that residents of the town are being locked in the mosques.

This is the first time the jihadists have successfully attacked a major town. Most of their attacks have been on village and farms.

The police in Cabo Delgado province in northern Mozambique say that at least 52 villagers of Xitaxi village were massacred by the jihadist group locally known as al-Shabaab. Villagers say that the people killed refused to join the group. Though the police place the blame on the group, they have not claimed the attack.

After two and half years, Mozambican jihadist group locally known as al-Shabaab have finally declared their intention of creating a caliphate in Northern part of the country. In a video circulating on social media, a member of the group whose identity or rank is unknown, told residents, “We want everyone here to apply Islamic law. We don’t want a government from unbelievers. We want a government from Allah.” The recent revelations come after the group seised government buildings, robbed banks, blocked roads and hoisted their black and white flag over towns and villages of Cabo Delgado province

The Islamic State claims to have shot down a Gazelle helicopter in Mozambique on either 8 or 10 April. The video shows masked, armed men with an Islamist flag surrounding the wreckage of the burnt-out helicopter. Apparently, the plane belonged to Dyck Advisory Group. Local reports say that though the Islamists shot at the plane, the crew of the plane destroyed the helicopter themselves to stop the enemy from taking parts of the plane

ACLED, a research institute in the UK, says that the group locally known as Al-Shabaab, but formally known as Ahlu Sunnah WA-Jamo, have been undeterred by the COVID-19 pandemic. Between 1 January and 25 July, the group has conducted 101 attacks in Cabo Delgado province. This means that they have increased their attacks by 300% compared to the same time frame the previous year.  Additionally, there are 285 total reported fatalities, 200 of whom are presumed to be civilians, as a result of the group in the same time period

The Mozambican government announced that an operation in northern Cabo Delgado led to the death of at least 50 suspected jihadists who are accused of attacks in the area.

The operation comes after the Interior Minister announced that the extremist had conducted 20 attacks on 11 villages in Cabo Delgado villages between 3 and 12 May. During those attacks, the militants abducted citizens, destroyed newly built hospitals and cut off telecommunication lines.

With the increased brazen nature of the jihadist movement in Northern Mozambique, President Filipe Nyusi appealed to neighbouring countries with help to fight terrorism in a televised speech. While in Zimbabwe, he said, terrorism, you can’t fight alone. This is the experience which we have. We need to share forces, not only in the region but probably for Africa.”

Few days following his speech in Zimbabwe, Mozambique engaged with South Africa for help. The Minister of International Relations of South Africa, Naledi Pandor, noted that both countries were in talks, adding that the Southern African country is contemplating how led support to Mozambique with its own resources.

In the early hours of the day, the jihadist group known as al-Shabaab attacked a village in Mocamia. Local reports indicate the insurgents set fire to homes, shops, schools, religious and government buildings. Many of the villagers fled into the bushes and neighbouring village

The shooting occurred six days after villagers arrived in Illala, fleeing violence in Macomia. The attackers reportedly asked who had escaped from Macomia before shooting them. The shooting went unreported for a month due to the challenges of reporting on Cabo Delgado, where the government has cracked down on media coverage of the insurgency. Journalists reporting on the conflict in northern Mozambique are often arrested arbitrarily and prevented from entering Cabo Delgado province.

MSF suspended its work in Macomia and Mocimboa da Praia, a week after an attack by insurgents left the health center “severely damaged” and forced staff to hide “in the bush for two day.” At the same time, the region faces a deepening cholera outbreak as well as the highest Covid-19 infection rate in the country.

On the night of June 25th, police raided Nanduadua (a neighborhood outside Mocimboa da Praia), arresting men suspected of involvement with the insurgency. When no man was present, Zitamar reports, women were “aggressively questioned” and sometimes abused. On 26 June, per ACLED,  26 corpses were found and identified as civilians brought in by the police the night before. That same day, 12 previously arrested civilians were released, some of whom were injured. 

Mozambican insurgents, commonly known by the locals as al-Shabaab, ambushed a local sub-contractor, Fenix construction, working on Totals Mozambique LGN project. In the attack, eight contractors were killed, 3 are missing while 3 other managed to escape with minor injuries. The survivors noted that 5 insurgents, who were wearing uniforms similar to those of Mozambique’s Defence and Security Forces. The local security responded to the attack and were met with hefty firepower.

Insurgents attacked Mocimboa da Praia, a major port in Cabo Delgado province, killing 40 civilians and kidnapping at least 28 children. The port is logistically significant for humanitarian relief in the region. Many have fled north, however. A source told ACLED that by 6 July, the port was “a ghost town.”

Mbaruco went missing in April, seemingly abducted by Mozambican security forces in Palma, a small town in Cabo Delgado province hard-hit by the regional conflict. Notably, the Mozambican government has recently clamped down on press freedom, in attempt to control information about the insurgency.

At least nine civilians were killed in a new attack by the insurgents in Cabo Delgado and Mocimboa da Praia provinces in northern Mozambique. Locals say that militants attacked 2 villages – in one of the attacks, eight people were beheaded while another one person as killed.

As of 23 July, the Mozambican health ministry recorded 1,288 cases and 18 deaths from cholera. Actual numbers are likely much higher. Due to difficulty obtaining data from conflict zones, hard hit areas such as Mocimboa da Praia often go weeks without updates. Zitamar reports that displaced persons are often accused of bringing the disease with them, making them targets of violence.

Insurgents killed, looted, and burned down homes in Litandauca, killing two civilians. A local militia composed of veterans ambushed the insurgents, killing 12 of them. The militia was reportedly armed by the government. This is the first time the government has distributed weapons to civilians since 2018.

From 5-9 August, security forces clashed with insurgents. The insurgency gradually gained control over Awasse (a village, notably, located on route to Mocimboa da Praia) and parts of Mocimboa da Praia. Fighting continued through the 10th, when the government forces began their withdrawal from the port. 

Mocimboa da Praia’s port is highly important to humanitarian aid logistically. Notably, the port is also central to a 23 billion dollar natural-gas project with the French company Total. An estimated 50 soldiers and 70 insurgents were killed in the fighting, though it is difficult to obtain reliable data from the region.   

The ADIN’s mission is to offer humanitarian aid and economic opportunity to those affected conflict and natural disasters in the provinces of Cabo Delgado, Nissan, and Nampula (all in Northern Mozambique). Unfortunately, the agency has major financial issues, with only 5% of its promised funding available. 

According to ACLED, witnesses saw 19 military vehicles transporting troops from Nangade district to Palma and Mocimboa da Praia district. State forces are reportedly in the western part of Mocimboa da Praia district, and Palma (north of Mocimboa da Praia). 

The Sixth Commission of the Assembly of the Republic is “concerned” at the number of mosques already constructed in the area (over 500 for 200,000 residents). One member of the Commission, Isaura Júlio, explicitly linked ASWJ to the provinces’ mosques: “We know very well that Cabo Delgado is experiencing terrorism…the process started precisely with the construction of mosques.” Zitamar News argued such rhetoric from government leadership is feeding distrust among religious groups. 

200 Mozambican forces were ambushed in Awasse, a village 30 km outside of Mocimboa da Praia. The number of fatalities was not reported, though Carta de Moçambique reports there were “casualties on all sides.”

Insurgents reportedly burned down multiple homes and stole several fishing vessels, as well as goats and food.

Insurgents also attacked Oluma, near Macomia District, per Carta de Mozambique. While specifics are sparse, a resident told Carta de Mozambique that “villages were burning.” According to ACLED, most residents had left prior to the attack. 

Amnesty International verified footage showing Mozambican security forces torturing and beheading prisoners. The organization called for an independent investigation. The Mozambican government tried to argue the soldiers in the video were actually ASWJ militants impersonating Mozambican soldiers. However, Amnesty International’s report points out that the soldiers in the video speak Portuguese and Shangaan, a language from southern Mozambique. As ASWJ originated and is based in northern Mozambique, the government’s explanation is unlikely.

Insurgents attacked two vehicles headed into Palma, per Carta de Moçambique. The road, which runs along the Tanzanian border, was previously considered the last safe route into Palma. The number of casualties is unclear, though at least two survivors are being treated at the nearby Nangade health center. Security forces reportedly responded quickly.

A video was released on social media showing a naked woman shot in the road by men appearing to be Mozambique Armed Defense Force Officers. The woman was shot 36 times as officers in the video referred to her as “Al Shabaab.” Amnesty International believes the shooting occurred outside Awasse on September 7th, during the military’s failed attempt to retake Mocimboa da Praia. Defense Minister Jaime Neto dismissed the video as fake, but Amnesty International says the video is “consistent” with previous findings of “appalling human rights abuses” committed by Mozambican soldiers. 

According to ACLED, the civilians were tending to their fields when the insurgents attacked and beheaded them. The attack occurred in Novo Cabo Delgado, Macomia district. Since fighting escalated in late 2019, there have been multiple reports of farmers forced to stop working their lands due to fear of similar attacks.

The insurgents reportedly gathered civilians in the town and accused them of looting the insurgents’ base. They subsequently beat “several” civilians, killing two of them. After government forces captured an insurgent base in May, Quissanga district had grown significantly safer. This is the first attack in the district since 1 July.

Mozambique formally requested support for training, logistics, medical equipment, and humanitarian aid from the EU. A week before, the EU passed a resolution that condemned government forces’ human rights abuses in Cabo Delgado.

While details are not clear, the insurgents were reportedly disguised as Mozambican security forces, per ACLED. The insurgents gathered civilians and accused them of looting an abandoned base, just as they did days prior in Cagembe. They proceeded to take the civilians’ cellphones and money, before abducting 200 of them (mainly women, with “a number of children”). The insurgents subsequently burned down nearly every home in the town. It is still uncertain how many civilians were killed, though public reports claim at least 8 died. 

The insurgents killed one EdM employee as he was working on an electricity line in Awasse, Mocimboa da Praia district. The insurgents also set an EdM vehicle on fire, as other employees fled. 

Meanwhile, in Naliendele village (outside of Palma) insurgents clashed with government forces. The number of casualties is not yet clear. Per ACLED, one report indicates five Mozambican soldiers were killed, while another claims two soldiers were killed and three injured. 

Insurgents killed 3 civilians traveling on the Palma-Nangade road, according to Mundo ao Minuto. Earlier that day, on the same road, the insurgents reportedly set another vehicle on fire. Civilians had only just started using the route again after similar attacks occurred earlier in September. The road is the last remaining route out of Palma. 

Mozambican soldiers, along with support from Dyck Advisory Group, fought with insurgents in the mangroves between Quissanga and Tandanhague. The insurgents reportedly shot at four helicopters and a plane, per ACLED. 

As conflict intensifies in Cabo Delgado there are now 368,000 internally displaced persons. The conflict has also forced 600 health care workers to flee and 25 health care facilities to close, according to Relief Web. Worsening matters, the region is currently suffering outbreaks of Cholera and acute watery diarrhea.

Over three days, insurgents attacked Mucojo Side (the headquarters of the administrative posts), and Crimize, Manica, Messano, Pangane, Rueia, Naunde, and Namibia 2, per Zitamar News. In Mucojo, insurgents clashed with government security and defense forces (FDS) after burning down homes and public infrastructure. The FDS fled after realizing the insurgents outnumbered them. 

The insurgents were seemingly trying to clear out local populations; in Messano they reportedly paid older civilians 9,000 meticais (or $125) to permanently leave town. In Pangane, some civilians fled via two boats, both of which were heavily overloaded, leading one of them to capsize. Over 1,000 people fleeing the attacks came to Macomia town, where many of them are in need of basic necessities such as food and bedding. 

The attack, which previously went unreported, occurred on 26 September in Cabo Delgado Communal Village, Macomia district. Insurgents tortured and beheaded a family of one man, two women, and two children. The victims’ bodies were unrecognizable. 

Renamo’s parliamentary bench called for the creation of a Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry investigating alleged human rights violation in Cabo Delgado, Nissan, Manica, and Sofala. Renamo made a similar request in May, which the ruling Frelimo bench rejected. 

Insurgents set buildings on fire in the villages of Quirimize and Naunde villages, both of which are in eastern Macomia district, according to ACLED.  

Insurgents tried to raid Magaia, Muidumbe district, but an armed local militia drove the insurgents off. It is unclear if there were any casualties. Per Pinnacle News, the militia prevented a similar attack on 30 September, in which one insurgent died. The militia was reportedly armed by the government

The victims were out after curfew, talking on a phone when the soldiers found them. Upon seeing the soldiers, the victims reportedly fled, but the soldiers shot and killed them. Notably, there have been numerous abuse allegations against Mozambican forces in Cabo Delgado.

DAG reportedly attacked the insurgents via helicopter in the mangrove between Ibo and Quirimba islands, per ACLED. The number of casualties is unclear. 

The attack occurred in the villages of Nambo and Pangane, resulting in the death of 8 civilians and 2 soldiers. The insurgents set fire to homes and vehicles (including two FDS cars). Carta de Moçambique reports that 62 people were abducted, including members of Nambo’s village administrative structure.

About 200 suspected ASWJ insurgents crossed the Rovuma River into Tanzania, where they attacked multiple targets in and around Kitaya village.  The insurgents referred to themselves as “Al Shabaab from Mozambique,” and claimed that they were there to “remove” Tanzanian President John Magufuli (who is up for reelection on 28 October). Notably, local government offices involved in the upcoming election were targeted in the attacks, along with a medical center, a cashew nut processing facility, and a military outpost. The total number of casualties is still unclear. 

Insurgents raided Iba, Meluco district; Olumbua, Macomia district; and Nanhoma, Quissanga district for supplies, though no arson attacks or casualties occurred. Cabo Delgado is entering its lean season, and per ACLED, raids have been increasing as resources such as food become more scarce. 

That same day, insurgents attacked Koko, Macomia district, burning multiple homes and kidnapping one civilian. The following day, the insurgents returned but were warded off by government forces, with no reported casualties. 

There were no reported casualties from the two attacks, but civilians were forced to flee their homes to Macomia town. 

The same day, insurgents travelled by two motor boats to Ilha Matemo. Once there, ACLED reports that the insurgents killed one man for “having a non-Islamic haircut” and kidnapped “several” people (predominately youths). When the insurgents tried to leave on local boats, the Dyck Advisory Group (DAG) helicopters attacked, killing an unknown number of insurgents and civilian hostages. The government later claimed that 34 insurgents were killed and 69 injured, but did not say how many civilian hostages were killed or injured.

7,400 IDPs arrived in Pemba on 127 boats. The IDPs were primarily women and children from Quissanga, Macomia, and Ibo districts. In an Interview, Luis Fernando Lisboa, the Bishop of Pemba, estimated that 80,000 displaced people now live the provincial capital, with more arriving every day. 

Insurgents attacked the Tanzanian border post of Kilambo, nearby the town of Kitaya (which the insurgents attacked on 14 October). No casualties were reported.

Government forces reportedly attacked an insurgent base in Mocimboa da Praia, the vital port city that insurgents have held since mid-August 2020. The number of casualties is unclear however, with officials giving contradictory reports. Interior Minister Amade Miquidade claimed that 22 insurgents were killed in the attack. Conversely, the Police Chief Bernardino Rafael claimed the attack was much more impactive, with government forces killing 108 insurgents and destroying 3 tons of food, 15 trucks, and 20 motorcycles. 

The Police of the Republic of Mozambique are reportedly banning reporters from photographing IDPs arrival at Pemba’s Paquitequete beach, per Carta de Moçambique. Recently, thousands of people fleeing violence have arrived in Pemba via boat. According to the city’s mayor roughly 95,000 IDPs now live in Pemba. While many have found housing through personal connections or aid agencies, as of 26 October, at least 200 IDPs were “stranded” on Paquitequete beach, according to ACLED. 

Notably, the government has tried to limit the flow of information on the conflict in Cabo Delgado, with government forces often harassing reporters (and, in some cases, abducting them). 

In recent months, Palma has grown increasingly cut off from the rest of the province due to attacks on routes into the town. On 27 October, DAG launched a counter-offensive to regain control over the road from Mueda into Palma. However, on 31 October, insurgents attacked Pundanhar, a town on the road into Palma which has been subject to frequent-attack recently. 

Insurgents claim they attacked three villages in the Mtwara region of Tanzania. Two of the villages are Michenjele and Mihambwe, with Nanyamba believed to be the third (per ACLED). Several buildings were burned down and one police station was looted. 

The boat was carrying 74 IDPs to Pemba when it capsized near Ihla Makalowe, per Zitamar. The captain reportedly saw a fire on Ihla Makalowe and feared that there an insurgent attack was occurring. He then tried to change course to avoid the island and hit rocks. 54 people drowned in the accident, including 11 children. When the survivors made it to shore, they found people hiding from an insurgent attack on another part of the island. The survivors fled the attack on Ilha Makalowe by taking another boat to Ilha Matemo. 

While this incident was unusually deadly, numerous boats have capsized while carrying IDPs fleeing violence, as IDPs in Cabo Delgado are often forced to leave on crowded ships.

Rockets were fired across the Rovuma River that demarcates the border between Tanzania and Mozambique, injuring at least 9 civilians in Mandimba village and 3 civilians in Pundanhar, according to Zitamar

The Mozambican government has not addressed the incident, though relations between the two countries have been tense due to the insurgency in Cabo Delgado.

While DAG attacked the insurgents by air on 1 November, the insurgents ambushed government forces outside of Pundanhar. The number of casualties is currently unknown. Pundanhar, which is on the way to Palma, has frequently been attacked in recent months as the insurgents try to cut off Palma from the rest of the province. 

Insurgents attacked Pundhanar again, burning several homes down and kidnapping 5 civilians.

Insurgents had been occupying Muatide, Muidumbe district when they attacked young men taking part in an initiation ritual. Fifteen boys and five adults from 24 de Marco village were decapitated. Their bodies were brought to a soccer field in Muatide. 

During the occupation, an additional 24 youths and 6 adults were decapitated. 

Northern districts of Cabo Delgado have largely been without power since the insurgents took over Mocimboa de Praia in August 2020. The power outage is due to the sabotage of Awasse Substation in Mocimboa da Praia district. Among the villages affected are: Mocimboa da Praia, Palma, Nangade and Muede. Electricidade de Moçambique has repeatedly tried to fix the issue, but has not been able to access the substation due to insurgent attacks.  

On 4 November, insurgents raided Nampanha. While no one was killed, multiple homes were destroyed and looted for supplies.

Insurgents attacked Nanjaba, outside of Macomia town. According to ACLED, “nearly the entire village” was burned down in the attack. Six women were kidnapped while other civilians were reportedly decapitated. 

The next morning, the insurgents attacked Napala, where they set homes on fire. Three civilians were killed in the attack.

UN Human Rights Chief Michelle Bachelet called for urgent measures protecting civilians in Cabo Delgado, where thousands are believed to be trapped by conflict and “hiding in the bush for days.” An estimated 14,300 displaced people fled to Pemba in the last month, with 355,000 people in total displaced by the conflict (OCHA November 2020). 

Militants attacked farmers working on a rice field in Zabarmari village, killing at least 43, per Reuters. A total of 70 people are feared dead in total, with dozens unaccounted for. Of those missing, villagers have no way of knowing whether they have been killed, abducted, or forced to hide in the bush. At the burials, Governor Babagana Zulum called for greater efforts in the fight against Boko Haram, specifically increased recruitment for soldiers, CJTF members and civil defense fighters to protect farmers. The UN described the attack as the most violent direct attack on civilians this year.

A little over a month after 300 insurgents attacked a Tanzanian village, Mozambican and Tanzanian police chiefs agreed to start joint counter-insurgency operations. The countries also agreed to the extradition of 516 suspected insurgents to Mozambique. While the details are not yet clear, Mozambican police commander Bernardino Rafael did comment on STV that the agreement “provides for us to work together to control the Rovuma [river] border.”

Insurgents travelled to Ilha Quifuque by canoe, where they killed at least three civilians and took an unknown number of civilians captive. Additionally, the insurgents reportedly attacked and captured seven boats and detained at least 20 passengers. The attack is particularly concerning given the growing isolation Palma has faced; land routes into Palma are largely too dangerous, making sea routes more vital.  Unfortunately, the government was forced to temporarily banned food shipments by sea due to the attack. 

President Nyusi criticized the media’s coverage of the conflict in Cabo Delgado. Per Zitamar News, Nysui accused journalists of not “being guided by professionalism,” but instead “deliberately or innocently being used to the advantage of the enemies or of the terrorists.” Nyusi went on to tell soldiers that “vigilance starts with you,” urging them not to hold those responsible for misinformation accountable.

Nyusi’s speech is concerning given the government’s attempt to restrict information on the conflict, and the numerous reports of soldiers attacking journalists (along with civilians more broadly). Notably, reporter Ibrahim Mbaruco went missing in April, after texting a friend that he was “surrounded by soldiers” in Palma.

More recently, two journalists were beaten in Nampula while reporting on displaced families. While the details are still unclear, the government is known to be “sensitive” about the high rate of displacement in Cabo Delgado.

While details are still unclear, a mortar appears to have been accidentally discharged in Palma near a residential area, ACLED reports. Two adult civilians and a child were injured by the explosive.

Insurgents ambushed government forces outside Matambalale, killing 25 soldiers and injuring 15 more. The soldiers were patrolling the area due to attacks on 24 de Março, Nanhoka, Ingundi and Muambula earlier in the week. A colonel and a major were among those killed.

At least 10 homes, a secondary school, and a community radio station were looted in Muambula. ACLED reports that looting has become increasingly frequent as the conflict leaves a growing number of civilians displaced.

Overview, OCHA announced that an estimated $254.4 million will be needed to aid 1.1 million in Mozambique. This is a substantial increase in the last year; OCHA requested $35.5 million for 2020. Unfortunately, the 2020 request has only been 65% funded. Further, due to the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, fundraising has been more difficult than in previous years.

Relatedly, OCHA also found that the number of IDPs “more than quadrupled” between March and November 2020, with over 500,000 now displaced. Of that number 45% are children, and 10% are staying in collective sites with “limited access to safe shelter, water, and sanitation.”

The government approved a new visa for humanitarian assistance, O Pais reports. National Communications Director Ludovina Bernado explained that the visa would enable foreign citizens to come to Mozambique “at the invitation of Mozambican government authorities or international organizations, in order to provide non-profit humanitarian work within the State Emergency or Public Disaster Situation, declared under the terms of the law.” Notably, however, these terms would not cover the conflict in Cabo Delgado, despite the increasingly high need for humanitarian aid.

According to Pinnacle News, a local militia accidentally ambushed Mozambican security forces on patrol outside of Macomia District. The government increasingly relies on local militias as the military struggles to get a handle on the insurgency, in part due to a lack of funding.

Insurgents attacked Mute village, outside of Palma, according to Zitamar News. The insurgents reportedly attacked in the afternoon on Monday, with villagers forced to flee into the forest, where they hid until five in the morning. The number of fatalities is currently unknown, though Pinnacle News reported that the village was “in flames.”

Mozambican authorities are assembling solar panels in Nangade and Muede, district capitals in Cabo Delgado. The towns have gone without power since August, when insurgents sabotaged an electrical substation in Awasse.

On a visit to Quissanga, Police Chief Bernardino Rafael said it was safe to return the village that roughly 45,000 fled in March 2020, DW reports. Rafael admitted that returning “is challenging” but necessary, as “terrorism is here, we have to confront it.” However, Zitamar News reported that IDPs have not received official word on their possible return.

Government forces attempted to retake Awasse, Mocimboa da Praia district. 24 insurgents and 6 Mozambican soldiers died, with another 16 soldiers injured. The government forces could not retake Awasse, and returned to Mueda district.

Insurgents “shot up and burned” five vehicles on the road connecting Nangade and Mueda, per ACLED. Among the vehicles were a passenger vehicle, a minibus, a cargo truck, and two mobile phone repair vehicles. There were no known casualties. 

More than 530,000 civilians have now been displaced by the conflict in Cabo Delgado, according to a new report from the UNHRC. The UN launched an appeal for $250 million to “provide urgently needed assistance and protect to over 1 million people” affected by the conflict in Cabo Delgado and neighbouring provinces. Humanitarian aid is severely needed in the region.

On December 23rd , insurgents attacked the village of Mute, in Palma district. The insurgents burned down and looted homes for food, though government forces did manage to fend off the attack, killing four insurgents and confiscating six firearms.

Days later, on December 27th, the insurgents attacked Saba Saba, a village in Muidumbe district, killing five civilians. The following day, insurgents burned down homes in Olumbe, Palma district, kidnapping an unknown number of civilians. According to ACLED, five civilians were killed in the attack.

Finally, on the 29th, Insurgents attacked Monjane, Palma district, about five kilometers south of the Total LNG project. While the number of casualties is unclear, that night insurgents also ambushed Mozambican forces outside Monjane, resulting in the deaths of two soldiers and one insurgent. The morning of the 30th, insurgents kidnapped an unknown number of civilians in Olumbe.

On January 1st, government forces clashed with suspected insurgents in Quitunda, the Palma district village Total built to resettle locals displaced by its LNG project. While the number of casualties is unclear, Bloomberg reports that the fighting began late Friday, and continued well into Saturday morning. After leaving Quitunda, the insurgents returned to Monjane, where they burned down several homes. 

Notably, per ACLED, fighting may have also broke out in Quitupo, a village situated on land controlled by Total. According to the report, two insurgents were killed after attempting to ambush a government patrol.

Following the attacks, Total announced that it would suspend work on its LNG project in Cabo Delgado. The following day, Total sent in five flights to evacuate its employees from the region.

While on nighttime patrol, Mozambican security forces killed a civilian man in Muagamula, after being unable to identify him.

Insurgents attacked Ilha Quirimba, Ibo district, reportedly stealing a fishing boat. It is unclear whether or not  there were any casualties. Per ACLED,  a local merchant reported that the insurgents killed four civilians, while another source claimed no civilians were killed.   

In an attack on Olumboa, Macomia district, insurgents captured 13 civilians. Of those captured, two escaped, seven were beheaded. Two other civilians were forced to guide nine insurgents to Ilha Matemo. The insurgents attacked the island upon arrival, abducting a woman and three children, as well as looting supplies. As the insurgents attempted to escape via a stolen boat, security forces killed four of the insurgents from a helicopter. The remaining insurgents, along with the captured civilians, got away.

Mozambican President Nyusi met with his Tanzanian counterpart, John Magufuli in Chato, Tanzania (Magufuli’s hometown). Nyusi and Magufuli reportedly discussed the insurgency and counter-terrorism efforts, per Club of Mozambique. Notably, Nyusi’s delegation included the General Commander of the police, Bernadino Rafael, and the commander of the Northern Operational Theatre, Maj-Gen. Eugenio Mussa. Both men have played major roles in the counter-insurgency efforts in Cabo Delgado.

In a speech in Pemba, President Filipe Nyusi informally offered amnesty to young Mozambicans leaving the insurgency, provided they are able to contact security services. The government previously promised amnesty in December 2017, however, and reports have shown that insurgents in government custody are often subject to abuses such as extrajudicial execution. 

Mozambican police chief Bernardino Rafael announced that 15 women and 6 children were rescued after being kidnapped during a 7 January attack on Ilha Matemo, Ibo district. Government forces managed to track the group to Olumboa, where they ambushed the insurgents and separated them from the 21 hostages.

Insurgents attacked a soccer team traveling in six vehicles from Mueda to a match in Palma. The travellers were outside of Pundanhar when the insurgents attacked, killing five people and destroying three cars.

Insurgents set a vehicle on fire in Pundanhar, Palma district. The vehicle had been transporting gasoline and passengers. Three people died in the attack.

Minister of Health Armindo Tiago promised that funds to install “health porches” would soon be available to resettlement villages, Deutsche Welle reports.

In districts with large IDPs populations, many administrators have called for better access to healthcare. In Metuge, for instance, administrator António Valério stated that many refugees in his district live up to 25 kilometers from the nearest health centre. This is particularly dangerous given that resettlement areas often face overcrowding and lack sanitation facilities. Notably, Metuge has reported 270 cases of diarrhea this year, more than triple reported during this period last year. 

After ASWJ’s escalated insurgency in Cabo Delgado, many in the region have been displaced. Last year alone, the number of displaced people reached 500,000. 90% have been taken in by locals, but are living in substandard conditions. A cholera outbreak has also begun with the rainy season. Director of UNHCR in southern Africa, Valentin Tapsoba, said the international community must act immediately to subside the crisis.

Insurgents attacked Namiune, in Nangade district. The insurgents beheaded the leader of the village and abducted four children.

About a month after residents fled Palma, the Mozambican government is ordering all civil servants to return to work in the district by 2 February. However, Palma has continued to face frequent attacks by the insurgency. Logistically, returning home would likely be difficult; ACLED reports that the only open land route into Palma town is the R763—which insurgents have frequently targeted. Troublingly, in October 2020, insurgents attacked Muidumbe district during government employees’ ordered return to the area.

Tom Bowker, editor of the Zitamar News newsletter was ordered to leave Mozambique, Zitamar News reports. While Bowker received nothing in writing, he was called into Migration Service on 25 January (a Monday) and informed he should leave by the end of the week. Bowker was told the expulsion was due to a complaint from Gabinfo, the government’s information office.

 Prior to Bowker, no foreign journalist had been expelled from Mozambique in over 30 years. Notably, Zitamar is known for its in-depth coverage of the conflict in Cabo Delgado. Over the past two years, the Mozambican government has increasingly tried to repress information on the conflict.

The ASWJ insurgency is weakening as militants experience a food shortage in Northern Mozambique and the Cabo Delgado region. An escaped militant in Mocimboa da Praia said “there are no conditions for survival” at the bases. 

After at least 800 reported attacks in the Cabo Delgado region last year, the government has reported that the number of attacks are now waning. Militants are claimed to be running low on supplies and food. However, Commander Eugnio Ussene Mussa, who was in charge of the region, recently died from what was reported as Covid-19, which may change the situation in the region.

Peter Maurer, chief of the ICRC, called for more aid organizations to focus their efforts on the crisis in Northern Mozambique, following a visit to Pemba. “This is a country which has a lot of other needs and on top of it, it gets violence and Covid….This is not yet a stable situation,” he said. He was impressed that host families have taken in tens of thousands of IDPs, which contrasts to the situation in Europe where there are more political clashes between residents and refugees.

A report published by Amnesty International accused Mozambique’s government forces and the Dyck Advisory Group (DAG), a South African private military company hired by the Mozambique government, of indiscriminately killing civilians in the Cabo Delgado Region since ASWJ started attacks there in 2017. Towns and villages were burned, women and children abducted, and civilians killed and beheaded with machetes by these groups, who were targeting ASWJ insurgents and people supportive of ASWJ. Amnesty International interviewed 79 internally displaced people between September 2020 and January 2021.

The US State Department took action against violent extremism by claiming ASWJ as “specially designated global terrorists,” calling the group ISIS-Mozambique. They deemed that any member of this group would be prevented travel to the US. They also banned business relations between the group and US citizens and demanded any US-related assets be frozen.

The Islamic State claimed responsibility for rebels besieging Mozambique’s town of Palma, the site of what is estimated to be the world’s largest gas deposits backed by Total, a French oil and gas company. The company abandoned the site. Thousands were displaced from the town and more than 55 people, including foreigners, killed. One American was evacuated. Many of the dead were beheaded. The attack did not come as a surprise, as rebels were preparing and predicted to make an attack once the rains stopped. 

Commander Chongo Vidigal, leader of military operations, declared Palma “safe” on state television, TVM. Cabo Delgado’s governor Valygi Tualibo said the town was back in government hands. On TVM, he said “the situation is bleak, but we are excited. Palma is under 100% control by Mozambican authorities.”

Thousands of Palma residents are in displacement camps across Cabo Delgado following the attack, with limited food resources. The attack left about 40,000 people displaced in total, many of whom fear returning back to Palma. The UN and World Food Programme is working to provide emergency support to the displaced population, which consists of a majority of women and children.

Leaders from six Southern African countries – Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe – as well as regional military and security officials met for two days and demand an “immediate technical deployment” to Mozambique. Another meeting is scheduled for the end of April. 

Total, a French company, declared force majeure on its liquified natural gas (LNG) project in Mozambique, a $20 billion venture. Palma was the site of gas projects worth billions, that are now on hold as employees were withdrawn after the March attacks. Total and Exxon Mobil had plans to develop Mozambique into a leading LNG producer and boost the country’s economy, but the future for these plans is now bleak.

A meeting among Southern African leaders from Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique over the Palma attacks was postponed. These countries form part of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) that wants to address the security situation in Mozambique. Botswana’s president, Mokgweetsi Masisi, was in self-quarantine after a Covid-19 case was detected in his staff, and South Africa’s president, Cyril Ramaphosa, was testifying to an inquiry corruption under former president Jacob Zuma.

20,000 people are stuck at the gates of Total’s Afungi site, fearing violence and with limited food resources. Many people are also in Quitunda, an area created to relocate those displaced by Total’s liquified natural gas (LNG) project. However, Quitunda has no water system and the World Food Programme has been unable to reach it due to security concerns.

Southern African Development Community members said at a SADC meeting that they would support Mozambican forces, but did not talk about military intervention. President of Mozambique has expressed his beliefs that the country should respond to its conflicts without foreign intervention, and said it aims to reinforce the operational capacity of its military, through funding and border security. 

South African President Cyril Ramaphosa announced to Members of Parliament that the terror attacks in Mozambique were being monitored in case they encroached into South Africa. He said that Southern African Development Community (SADC) leaders and South Africa’s security agencies were watching the conflict and assessing its impact.

The International Crisis Group advised Mozambique to send aid to “disenchanted communities” and establish dialogue with militants to offer them alternatives to violence. Their report said that the government would have to address the factors that caused the insurgency, including opportunities for the poor (who are often resorting to becoming jihadists), ethnic divisions, and drug trafficking. Mozambique president Filipe Nyusi is wary about assistance from neighboring countries and the West, saying it will attract international jihadists.

70,000 people have fled the city of Palma, located in Cabo Delgado province, bringing overall displacement to almost 800,000 people since the armed conflict and insecurity began. 2 months after militants attacked Palma, more than 2,000 children are without their parents. The living conditions on the outskirts of Palma have been described as dire by the UNHCR, as IDP’s are unable to return home due to the increase of violence in the area. 

Leaders of the 16-nation Southern African Development Community agreed to send a regional military force to Mozambique to help battle its jihadi insurgency that has been wreaking havoc in the Cabo Delgado province. The humanitarian crisis has claimed the lives of over 2,000 people and displaced over 700,000. Mozambique will establish a headquarters in the northern port city of Nacala for the regional force.

The ICRC has announced it is increasing its operations in Mozambique in response to the Cabo Delgado insurgency. It will mainly focus on improving health care and water access for the citizens there, honing in on vulnerable displaced populations and host communities. This mission will become a new delegation on July 1st this year and will be located in Pemba, Cabo Delgado.

The UN World Food Programme warned that the displaced population in Mozambique – about 730,000 – could be facing a hunger emergency. WFP is appealing for $121 million for this population, but may have to ration or completely stop its efforts in Mozambique if it cannot get additional funding. 75,000 children under five are currently experiencing acute malnutrition.

Rwanda announced that it started sending a total of 1,000 troops to Mozambique to help combat the insurgency. Rwanda does not belong to the SADC and will fight with Mozambican and SADC forces.

The EU has decided to set up a military training mission in Mozambique to help the country battle the current insurgency raging in Cabo Delgado province, which has increased in intensity over the past year. The EU foreign ministers confirmed the decision at a meeting in Brussels this past Monday. EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell has said that 200 to 300 soldiers could be deployed to the country by year’s end.

Last month, UNICEF increased its annual Humanitarian Action for Children appeal for Mozambique to 96.5 million US dollars, and has only received 16.3 million US dollars so far. It increased its appeal due to the rapidly escalating situation in Cabo Delgado province. As three quarters of a million people have been displaced, most of them internally, it is important to point out that 46% of the displaced are children.

As the Cabo Delgado insurgency rages on, World Politics Review argues that Mozambique has the potential to become the next frontier of global islamic terrorism if not sharply curbed as soon as possible. A multi-pronged response is required in order to stop Mozambique to become the next terrorism stronghold.

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) troops have begun arriving in Mozambique, despite heightened tensions. As of now it seems as if there are troops from South Africa and Botswana only, who plan to create their base 1,900km from the epicentre of the insurgency. Criticism has called for the risk of South African soldiers being killed in combat at a time when South Africa itself is unstable.

The UN has decided that in the first half of 2021 Africa has been the region hardest hit by Islamic extremists. The report stated that the extremism in Mozambique is spreading into Tanzania, and that one of the most concerning events of 2021 was the Islamic State’s take over and brief holding of Mozambique’s strategic port of Mocimboa da Praia in Cabo Delgado province near the border with Tanzania. The report also states that the group’s are taking advantage of the country’s fragile state due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 

This past March, Islamic insurgents took the northern city of Palma hostage for more than four days and killed dozens of people. This has caused thousands to flee the city and try to find refuge in Tanzania. However, the Tanzanian military have been returning many of the refugees back into northern towns of Mozambique. Since June the UNHCR has estimated that more than 9,600 refugees fleeing Mozambique into Tanzania have been forcibly returned through the Negomano border point since January this year. In a single two-day period in June, Tanzania reportedly pushed nearly 1,000 people back into Mozambique.  

Mozambique’s President, Filipe Nyusi has expressed his gratitude for the arrival of foreign soldiers to help fight the current insurgency. Botswana was the first country to dispatch soldiers on Monday, as Rwanda prepares to deploy their own. The 16-member Southern African Development Community (SADC) agreed to send troops last month.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) has announced its Country Strategy for Mozambique, which involves collaboration with the government and development partners. The three main pillars include: Migration Governance, Promoting Resilience and Durable Solutions, and Humanitarian Preparedness and Response. This comes at a time where more than 800,000 people have been internally displaced by natural disasters and the insurgency.

Mozambican forces have reportedly barred IDPs from leaving the outskirts of Palma who are in search of moving to safer areas. Government forces have imposed restrictions that have prevented tens of thousands of refugees from leaving the nearby towns. 

In collaboration with Rwandan troops, Mozambican forces were able to recapture the port of Mocimboa da Praia on August 9th after Islamic extremists held the northern town for a year. This comes at a crucial time when Rwandan forces have made significant improvement in Mozambique’s fight against the insurgency. This port is crucial for transporting supplies to other parts of Cabo Delgado province, which is the area most affected by the insurgency.

Recently, Islamist insurgents in northern Mozambique are retreating for the first time since 2017. This comes as Rwandan troops have entered the country and more SADC forces are to be expected.

As international attention has brought inland troops to help combat Mozambique’s insurgency, little attention has been given to the maritime response that may be needed. As insurgents were able to hold the port of Mocímboa da Praia at the beginning of the month and attacked nearby islands, perhaps this is where the international community should focus its efforts next. This is critical as there was a recent discovery of large offshore gas fields, so the security of the coastal waters could directly impact the future of Mozambique’s natural gas economy.

Portugal’s minister of defense, João Gomes Cravinho, explained how the European Union training mission (EUTM) to Mozambique has been successful in combating the insurgency in a timely manner. The mission is to be commanded by Brigadier-General Nuno Lemos Pires of Portugal, and aims to train Mozambican special forces to implement a rapid reaction force to mitigate the situation in Cabo Delgado. This comes at a time where SADC member countries have sent their troops to Mozambique as well.

Experts claim that in order to truly curb the Cabo Delgado insurgency, root causes must be addressed and military action alone is not sufficient in the long term picture. At the Sovereign Security Africa conference held in late August of this year, it was discussed that some of the root causes were created by local grievances such as high unemployment, low literacy, poverty and few social services. Although the country as a whole is poor, Cabo Delgado in particular has an extreme economic disparity as the province has a substantial energy industry. 

With the help of Rwanda and the SADC forces, Mozambique has been able to reclaim nearly all areas that were under the control of militants in Cabo Delgado province, President Filipe Nyusi has announced. Some local people are even finding it safe enough to return to their homes.

Reports from a refugee camp in Maputo, Mozambique have claimed that humanitarian workers are sexually exploiting refugee women in turn for receival of aid. Acts include being offered a safe place to sleep in exchange for sex with one of the workers.

Citing the regional security brought in by forces, Rwandan’s president, Paul Kagame has called on TotalEnergies to resume their multi-billion dollar LNG project. The project was put on halt in March due to the insurgency and resumption could still be up to another year says Akinwumi Adesina, President of the AfDB.

The UN announced this past Monday that aid has been able to reach conflict-ridden Palma, in Cabo Delgado after not being able to receive it for 6 months.

On October 5th, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) announced that they would be extending their military mission in Mozambique. They did not give a timeframe for the anti-terrorism mission. It aims to continue to stabilize the area from Islamic extremism.

UNICEF is claiming that Islamist extremists are recuriting child soldiers in the province of Cabo Delgado. This is not the same group as Somalia’s Al-Shabaab, and is linked to the ongoing insurgency in the country. Sexual violence has also been commited against young girls, including childhood marriage.

The World Bank has pledged US$100 million to support the government of Mozambique in its reconstruction plan for Cabo Delgado. The plan hopes to restore public administration, health units, schools, energy, and water supply.

The EU sent over 1,000 soldiers in September and started their mission on November 3rd. The current plan is for the troops to be in the country for two years to train rapid intervention units.

President Filipe Nyusi has dismissed Defence Minister Jaime Neto without providing a reason. A new defence minister has yet to be named.

President Filipe Nyusi swore in Cristóvão Chume as the new Defence Minister just days after the dismissal of former Defence Minister Jaime Neto. In addition, Arsénia Massingue has been sworn in as the new Interior Minister.

The President of Tanzania, Samia Suluhu Hassan, has pledged to support Mozambique in fighting the insurgency. President Hassan stated that Tanzania is obligated to assist African countries that fight for independence.

A South African security consultant, Jasmine Opperman, has warned that ISIS is offering terrorist training to more than 2,000 insurgents, specifically in suicide bombing.

Following Rwanda’s strong military actions, guerrilla insurgents have advanced north into Niassa. The insurgents have established bases in Mecula and continue to attack nearby villages.

The deputy president of South Africa, David Mabuza, warns that there is a high probability of a spill over into neighboring countries. Mabuza confirms South Africa’s support and recommends an adequate early warning system.

Following a spill over into Niassa province, the insurgents have continued to widen the battleground with continued brutality and violence.

After moving into Niassa province, the insurgency has officially spilled over into Tanzania, threatening the security of the country.

The Commander General of the Police, Bernardino Rafael, has announced that the Mozambican Defence and Security Forces (FDS) has eliminated an important militia leader, known as ‘Cassimo’. Cassimo was eliminated in Niassa province after a shootout.

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has extended its mandate, with a special focus on assisting with the resettlement of displaced people in Cabo Delgado.

TotalEnergies was forced to delay their LNG project by 2 years due to attacks on nearby towns that disrupted the operation. However, Rwandan and SADC forces have deactivated the insurgents’ bases and increased security in nearby towns, a promising sign for the resuming of TotalEnergies’ operations.

The Niassa Special Reserve has recently recovered from elephant poaching and Cyclone Eloise. Now that the insurgents have moved into Niassa, residents are concerned that the wildlife will be poached, and the vegetation burned.

Mozambican soldiers, with the support of regional forces, attacked a rebel base in the northern part of the country. The soldiers shot and killed 10 insurgents.

Mozambican residents have called for SADC intervention to stop insurgents. This comes in the wake of a SANDF soldier’s death, who was killed in an ambush. SANDF’s mission has been extended until January 2022.

The weapons of choice for terrorists and rebels in Mozambique have been identified. Most insurgents are armed with cheap Chinese-manufactured AK rifles. Rebel fighters are mostly armed with Type 56 rifles, whilst ISIS-linked militants are mostly armed with Chinese Type 80 machine guns that are either captured or acquired on the black market.

Terrorist attacks in Mozambique have affected 96,942 students since April 2017. Schools are now set to open for the first term in January 2022. However, there is rising concern that ongoing terrorist attacks will squander these plans.

The increasing number and intensity of jihadist attacks in Niassa have caused nearly 4,000 Mozambicans to flee their homes in fear. This latest incident adds to the existing 820,000 displaced people.

Six months following the Rwandan troops’ arrival in Mozambique, the Rwanda Defence Force (RDF) and Mozambique Armed Defence Forces (FADM) have agreed to establish joint security teams to bring peace and stability to Cabo Delgado.

Malawi will be hosting the first SADC Summit of 2022 from 11 to 12 January. The SADC Extraordinary Summit of Heads of State and Government has set the insurgency in Mozambique as a priority. The summit will address the key issue of gaining support for the SADC mission in Mozambique (SAMIM) objectives that will bring peace and stability to Cabo Delgado.

Experts have called for more support in the fight against insurgents. It has been requested that more infantry back-up, better air support, stronger weapons, and more ammunition be received.

Mozambique estimates that R3.2 billion ($500 million) will be needed to fight terrorism in 2022. The Malawian president, Dr Lazarus Chakwera, who is also the SADC chairperson, has called for member states to continue to support and contribute to the Cabo Delgado reconstruction plan, which started in November 2021 and will run until 2024.

The recent SADC Summit revealed that evident progress has been made by the SADC Mission and has therefore decided to extend its mandate by 3 months. 

In the midst of SADC’s recent progress, concerns about further attacks rise. The SADC has warned that the withdrawal of insurgents may in fact be a strategy to regroup their forces and launch more deadly attacks.

Since SADC lacks air support and infantry support, the insurgents have taunted SADC by daring them to leave main roads and fight them in the bushes, a clear weakness of the SADC.

The Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR), based in South Africa, has conducted research indicating that the Mozambican youth are extremely vulnerable to being recruited by insurgents due to unemployment, poor education, and economic hardship. However, it was determined that if mobilized constructively, the youth could bring political and economic stability to the country.

SADC’s extended mandate and the Rwandan Defence Force (RDF) have increased security and put the insurgents under increasing pressure. The insurgents are shifting west from northern Cabo Delgo into Mecula at the Tanzanian border to raid softer targets.

Tuahil Muhidim, a Tanzanian jihadist leader who was responsible for the capture of the Mocimboa da Praia port, has been killed by Mozambican and Rwandan forces. Muhidim was also responsible for the kidnapping and punishment of two Brazilian nuns in 2020.

Following a forced pause on TotalEnergy’s LNG project, TotalEnergies CEO Patrick Pouyanne announced that the US$20 billion LNG project is planned to restart in 2022. The firm aimed to produce its first cargo in 2024, however, this date has been significantly pushed back because of the interruptions caused by the insurgency.

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