Massive forced displacement of peoples in the form of either, Internally Displaced Person (IDPs) or Refugees, is one of the key challenges of the post-Cold War World. Intra-state war or a civil armed conflict is the main contributing factor for the existing dramatic displacement crisis worldwide. In addition, persecution and generalized human rights violations are also a considerable cause for the problem.
Beginning from the late 1990s, in relation to the widespread internal conflicts in third world states of Africa and the Arab world, the world continues to witness an increasing number of displaced persons: 37.3 million, were estimated number to displaced peoples in 1996, now this has risen up towards 65.3 million in 2015, which is considered as a 75% increase. Particularly, a new record of the mass displaced population has been continuously recorded since 2011. In last five years, a sky rocketed explosion of, mainly conflict induced displaced peoples have been observed, while in 2011, there were 42.5 million. This total number has risen sharply to 45.2, 51.2, and 59.5 million in the years 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively. This is estimated as a 50 % increase over five years. For example, Syria (4.9 million), Afghanistan (2.7 million), and Somalia (1.1 million) are the three top refugee-sending countries, and constitute around 54% of world’s displaced population since 2015, because of their current conflicts. On the other hand, Turkey (2.5 million), Pakistan (1.6 million), Lebanon (1.1 million), Iran (979,400), Ethiopia (736,100), and Jordan (664,100) are the top five host countries of the world’s refugees of the last year.
According to the June 20, 2016, report of the UN Refuge Agency (UNHCR), out of the total 65.3 million displaced persons in 2015, 40.8 million are IDPs while, the rest, 21.3 million and 3.2 million are refuges and asylum seekers, respectively. Syria is the leading country in producing displaced populations, which has resulted from its nearly 5 years of civil war. By the end of 2015, more than 11.7 million Syrians are recorded as displaced persons with 4.9 million refugees, 6.6 million IDPs, and nearly 250,000 asylum-seekers. Other conflict-prone countries, such as Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Nigerians, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, and Yemen are believed to have produced over 2 million displaced persons by the end of 2015.
Compared to the previous year, an additional 5.8 million displaced persons were produced in 2015, making the year the highest record. An average of 24 people had been displaced every minute of every day or 34,000 people a day in last year. Children below 18 years old also constitute half of the refugee population, including 98,400 unaccompanied children. This huge number of the displaced population remains a critical challenge to the international community. Only small numbers of the displaced population are still getting protection, assistance, and a durable solution as UNCHR reported. Ranging from the untold humanitarian crisis facing the displaced persons themselves, to the political crisis, such as what Europe currently tested, is the existing worldwide challenges that have resulted in involuntary displacement. The situation is considered as a severe test on international community’s concern, particularly for those that are displaced internally and are refugees, or in general, to the collective human interest. Ending the existing conflict through a political solution will be an uncontested measure. However, seemingly this could not be an immediate response to the peoples of concern (IDPs and refugees) since the complicated nature of the conflict itself is a time taking issues that one cannot resolve it soon, thereby lasting solutions are yet to be found for the problem. Rather, solidarity of nation-states or working together through willingness, at least to address the day to day humanitarian needs of victims of forced displacement, is suggested as what needs to be done for an immediate response until lasting remedies are provided.
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