The Arab Spring was and remains one of the most consequential and magnanimous geopolitical tectonic shifts in the Middle East region in recent memory. The Arab Spring began in 2011, and at the time that it began, the leaders of the states that comprise the Middle East region had either personally led the country for decades or had their family dynasty lead the country for decades.
Over those decades, frustration with the status quo was already high & tense and was made even worse by the lack of civil and political freedoms in the region. It was then put on display by the lack of transparency and accountability, as well as the centralization of wealth in the elite political class, corruption and nepotism that became normalized in the Middle East.
It wasn’t until Mohammed Bouazizi, a street vendor in Tunisia, set himself on fire out of desperation and frustration, that a spiralling series of events took place throughout the entire extended region and became known as the Arab Spring.
The Spring started in Tunisia, with Bouazizi’s act of self-immolation sent a shockwave throughout the region, with ordinary citizens empathizing with that sense of desperation and frustration that he felt. The empathy turned into anger, and with anger came the demand for change. In Tunisia, the long-time leader, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, commonly known as Ben Ali, who had at that point ruled for 24 years, became the focus of that anger and fled the country as mass-protests gripped the state. Ben Ali continues to live in self-exile in Saudi Arabia for fear of prosecution for his corruption upon return to Tunisia.
The protests from that point spread across the region like wildfire, reaching Egypt, Yemen, Syria, Jordan, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Morocco and Bahrain. In Egypt, with the protestors numbering in the millions, led the 40-ruler authoritative ruler, Hosni Mobarak, to step down and be arrested for his crimes against the Egyptian people, including the initial attempted violent crackdown of the Arab Spring protesters.
After Mobarak stepped down, the sense of fear among the ruling political class in the Middle East each began to fear that they would be next and suffer similar fates. Soon after, the leader of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh, suffering the same fate as Mubarak, with stability evading the country till this day and resulting in the Yemeni Civil War. Muammar Gaddafi, the long-time leader of Libya, resisted the will of the Libyan people for him to step down, which resulted in his forcible removal from power, as well as a NATO-led intervention in the country. The Libyan events also remain uncontained till this day, leading to the Libyan power struggle between competing governments in the East and West of the country.
In Syria, the fight to remove Bashar Al-Assad has not yet ended and is still in full force, with the Syrian Civil War now reaching its 8th year. Some countries avoided the full brunt of the Arab Spring, with protests slowly dissipating or being appease with compromises by their leaders, or even financial incentives to want to keep the status quo. Such outcomes occurred in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Oman, and Morocco.
Other countries experienced very little, if not at all, upheaval as part of the Arab Spring, in part due to two reasons, either having a long history of conflict and hoping to avoid future ones, such as in Lebanon and Iraq, or due to the high quality of life in some countries, such as Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.
In Bahrain, a country that has a majority of shia muslim population and is led by a King from the minority sunni muslim sect, was on the verge of a change of leadership until Saudi Arabia interfered and provided the Bahraini King with 15,000 Saudi soldiers to stabilize the kingdom and crackdown on the protesters. This is largely due to the fact that the biggest losers of the Arab Spring would be the two countries in the region that staked their entire domestic governance structure as well as regional influence on the basis of authoritative rule – the kind of rule that directly led to the Arab Spring and the one that the protestors fought hard to remove from power.
Both Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, seeing their long-term ruling counterparts across the region slowly fall one by one, led to legitimate fears that they would be next in being deposed from power. The only way to hold on to their rule, other than the vast wealth that came associated to their natural resources, namely oil, was to show that the mass-protests do not lead to success or democracy. This started the second phase of the Arab Spring which is known as the counter-revolution.
Led and financed by the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, the counter-revolution convinced rulers, militaries and established special interest groups to hold their ground against these protestors and even fight back, brutally cracking down on the will of the people. The fear of repercussions from the international community was alleviated by the two regional powers because of the large influence they have amongst western states, as providers of investment and exporters of natural resources, thus giving them the ability to provide the necessary diplomatic cover to stay the course.
This can be seen in their interventions in Yemen, Libya, Egypt and most recently, Sudan. While the Arab Spring came like a force of nature that was long overdue, it has since underwent many different phases, and the region remains at a crossroads once again. The crossroads at question is whether or not to continue on the path of authoritative stability or to shift to the grassroots democratic unpredictability.
Throughout the Middle East (Started in Tunisia)
Hundreds of thousands
Thousands hurt in protests (600o in Egypt in 2015)
Libya, Yemen, Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Jordan, Lebanon, Sudan
Most of them condemned the protests and refused to step-down at first, often resorting to aggression against their own citizens.
Criticized the clashes and pressured the UN to act, failed to provide any effective assistance to reduce violence or improve stability
Organized and led the protests, in a fight for democracy and better governance
Provides assistance and advocates for peace during the protests and consequential wars
Condemned the violence of governments in the middle east, many of whom dealt violently with protesters
Tunisia sparks the Arab Spring after a street vendor, Mohammed Bouazizi, set himself on fire protesting against local police who humiliated him.
Tunisian President, Ben Ali, resigns and flees to Saudi Arabia.
Egyptians demand resignation of President Hosni Mubarak.
Protestors in Yemen also demand for the resignation of the president citing poor leadership
Sudanese citizens clash in Khartoum with police, demanding government’s resignation.
Egypt VP Omar Suleiman announces the resignation of Mubarak with the army council assuming control.
The Bahraini people also protests at the Pearl Roundabout citing poor governance as well.
Protests erupt in Benghazi, Libya which escalates into the Libyan Civil War. The protests began after a lawyer representing the relatives of the victims of the 1996 prison massacre was arrested.
Around 1000 military personnel dispatched to the Pearl Roundabout to quell protests. Hundreds hurt and 3 died.
Dozens die in demonstrations around Libya in areas like Benghazi, Zentan, and al-Baida.
Anti-government fighters take Benghazi with hundreds of Casualties.
Morocco protests begin again due to protestors citing bad governance and demanding constitutional reforms.
Protests against the hard-line government in Syria begin, which initiates the civil war that rages on up to this day.
NATO begins Libya bombing after UN resolution. The French began the bombing while others like the UK, the US, and others joining later.
Rebels defeat Gaddafi forces in Misrata which caused massive civilian deaths
President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh hurt in an assassination attempt. He fled to Saudi Arabia for treatment after sustaining burns.
Constitutional referendum held in Morocco to curb monarchical rule.
Yemeni president appears on TV after the failed assassination calling for dialogue.
The eight-day battle of Tripoli between the National Transitional Council and Government forces begins, in which nearly 2000 combatants were killed. This was codenamed “Operation Mermaid Dawn” by rebel forces.
Yemen have their own Million Man March after Saleh returns to Yemen from Saudi Arabia.
Maspero Massacre in Egypt after clashes between the army and Coptic Christians protesting against the destruction of a church.
Gaddafi is captured and killed by rebels in Sirte. The National Transition Council declares an end to the Libyan Civil War of 2011.
UN condemns Yemeni president after he dealt violently with peaceful protesters. The UN also endorsed a plan for President Saleh to step down and his family granted amnesty.
The first ever election of the Arab Spring is held in Tunisia to form an assembly from 80 political parties.
Gaddafi’s son, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, arrested near Ubari in Libya.
50 people die in clashes between security forces and protestors at Mohamed Mahmoud Street in Cairo.
The Gulf Cooperation Council and Yemen’s Saleh broker a deal for Saleh to transfer power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi.
Egypt holds its first free elections after Mubarak.
Former dissident, Moncef Marzouki is elected Tunisia President with Hamadi Jebeli becoming PM.
Security forces attack the cabinet in Cairo triggering clashes. Shocking pictures of a woman being assaulted by police emerge.
Saleh resigns officially and transfers power to his VP, Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi.
Egypt votes in search of a new president. The first round sees Mohamed Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq emerge on top.
Syrian government forces attack villages in Homs Province killing more than 100 people, children included.
Mubarak sentenced to life in prison.
Sudan protest over government’s desire to cut on fuel subsidies.
Morsi, of the Muslim Brotherhood, declared new President of Egypt.
Ben Ali sentenced to life in prison (in absentia) by a Tunisian court for complicity in the murder of 43 protesters.
US consulate in Benghazi attacked. Chris Steven, US ambassador to Libya and three other US citizens die.
Morsi issues a constitutional decree making him all powerful which triggered protests again.
Mass protests against Morsi, culminating to violence for days.
Syria’s death toll increases to an excess of 70, 000 people.
Morsi deposed and Supreme Court Chief Justice Adly Mansour becomes interim president. Morsi supporters take to protests and Muslim Brotherhood leaders arrested.
Sit-ins disrupted by police in Cairo resulting in hundreds of deaths. The government declares a month long state of emergency. The VP, Mohamed ElBaradei, also resigns because of the clashes.
Sad day for Syria as activists claim the government carried out chemical attacks in Damascus, killing hundreds.
Morsi accused and charged with terrorism.
Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt declared a terrorist group.
ISIS and Syrian opposition fight over territory. In Tunisia, the first constitution since Ben Ali’s ousting is passed.
State of emergency lifted in Tunisia by the president. In Libya, the PM is sacked and a replacement found in Ahmed Maiteg.
Former Egyptian Minister of Defence, Adel Fattah el-Sisi, wins the Egyptian presidential election in an election widely seen as not free nor fair.
Libyan PM resigns after his appointment is deemed unlawful. Tripoli erupts in conflict as thousands are displaced.
Raqqa becomes the ISIS capital. An ISIS propaganda video also emerges showing the beheading of James Foley, an American journalist.
US and five Sunni Arab states (Bahrain, Joran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) launch airstrikes against ISIS in Raqqa and Aleppo.
Beji Caid Essebsi becomes Tunisia’s President.
Egyptian forces carry out airstrikes on ISIS in Libya after videos emerged of the ISIS killing 21 Coptic Christians from Egypt.
Morsi sentenced to death.
Russia sends fighter jets to hit ISIS territories. Outrage as some claim that the targeted people were anti-Assad. Meanwhile, in Libya, Gaddafi’s son, who was arrested in November 2011, is sentenced to death along with eight others.
ISIS claims responsibility for the downing of a Russian airliner in Sinai which killed all 224 people onboard.
Mubarak acquitted of all charges relating to deaths of protesters and is now unwell aged 89.
ISIS militants kill more than 300 people at a mosque in the Sinai Peninsula
Dozens of Tunisians protest in the streets in response to steep price increases across the country. More than 200 people have been arrested, and there has been at least one reported death.
Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah el-Sisi is re-elected after all other major competition pulled out of the race, either by force or arrest.
Mohammad Morsi, the first freely and democratically elected president of Egypt, that was overthrown by an army coup led by now current president el-Sisi, dies during a court appearance. His death comes after repeated allegation of torture, sleep depravation, starvation, and what human rights groups have for long called a slow, excruciating death sentence.
The death this week of Tunisia’s first democratically elected president accelerated the timetable for choosing his successor, placing new strain on a political system in which power is shared among several parties, many voters are disillusioned and leaders are confronting a struggling economy. But if the death on Thursday of President Béji Caïd Essebsi, at age 92, shook up the only surviving democracy to emerge from the Arab Spring, the system worked as planned.
Sudan’s pro-democracy movement signed a final power-sharing agreement with the ruling military council on Saturday at a ceremony in the capital, Khartoum. The deal paves the way for a transition to civilian-led government following the military overthrow of President Omar al-Bashir in April.
Tunisians voted Sunday in their second-ever presidential elections, widely seen as a vital test for one of the world’s youngest democracies, the only one to emerge from the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings.People across the North African nation dubbed the cradle of the Arab Spring streamed into polling stations throughout the day to choose from among 26 candidates who represent a wide spectrum of political, social and religious views.
Spontaneous protests erupted amid frustration over Iraq’s high youth unemployment rate, its dire public services and chronic corruption.
Over 150 people have been killed in the protests in Iraq, many by security forces who witnesses say were using snipers.
A conservative, Islamist-backed law professor looked set to assume Tunisia’s presidency after polling agencies suggested he overwhelmingly won Sunday’s runoff election in the country that unleashed the Arab Spring pro-democracy uprisings.
A Lebanese Christian party has announced it is quitting the government after a third day of protests across the country against tax increases and alleged official corruption. After tens of thousands took to the streets on Saturday, four ministers from the Lebanese Forces party, a traditional ally of Prime Minister Saad Hariri, resigned from his cabinet.
Protesters have continued to block roads across Lebanon on the seventh day of mass protests, refusing to leave the streets until the government steps down. Clashes broke out on Wednesday after the Lebanese army tried to forcibly open a key road at the Jal el-Dib bridge on the northern outskirts of the capital, Beirut. Two people were reportedly injured.
Kais Saied, a political outsider and retired law professor, was sworn in as Tunisian president on Wednesday after he won a landslide victory in this month’s election.
At least 40 people have died in Iraq during a fresh wave of anti-government protests that descended into violence. Reports say half of the victims were killed while trying to storm the offices of militia groups and the government.
Tunisia’s Prime Minister Youssef Chahed has sacked the country’s foreign and defence ministers after consultation with the newly elected President Kais Saied, the presidency said. Chahed has appointed Karim Jamoussi, the justice minister, as acting defence minister, and Sabri Bachtobji as acting foreign minister, a statement from the presidency said on Tuesday.
Lebanon’s Prime Minister Saad Hariri has turned in his resignation to President Michel Aoun, satisfying one of the main demands of the country’s protest movement. The announcement on Tuesday came on the back of 13 days of mass protests demanding the departure of the country’s entire political elite amid growing anger over official corruption, poor public services and years of economic mismanagement.
Lebanon is on the verge of economic collapse unless an “immediate solution” can be found to end days of nationwide protests that have paralyzed the country, Central Bank Governor Riad Salame told CNN in an exclusive interview Monday.
Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has blamed the United States and its allies for spreading “insecurity and turmoil” in Iraq and Lebanon, urging anti-government protesters in both countries to seek changes in a lawful way.
The Trump administration has frozen all military aid to the Lebanese army, including a package worth $105 million that both the State Department and Congress approved in September, congressional officials said Friday.
Lebanon’s banks have reopened after two weeks of unprecedented protests that prompted the resignation of Prime Minister Saad Hariri and saw waves of people take to the streets to express discontent with a political establishment that has failed to take the economy out of crisis mode.
Iraq’s president has promised to hold a snap parliamentary election once a new law is passed and said the country’s beleaguered Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi has agreed to step down if a replacement was found.
It was the 37th such gathering since their pro-democracy movement began in February. Police are struggling to contain thousands of Algerian demonstrators surging through the streets of the capital, Algiers, to protest against plans for next month’s presidential election and celebrate the 65th anniversary of the start of the country’s war for independence from France.
Algeria’s electoral authority has said the country’s presidential election next month will be contested by five candidates – all part of the political establishment that has drawn the ire of months-long protests demanding the departure of the ruling elite.
The United Arab Emirates said it’s “studying” possible aid to Lebanon, raising the prospect of a lifeline to the beleaguered country as it tries to get public finances in order after two weeks of anti-government protests.
Lebanon’s grand mufti, the top cleric for Sunni Muslims, called on Saturday for the formation of a new emergency government of technical experts and for those in power to meet protesters’ demands.
A report by the United Nations has revealed that member states – the United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Turkey and Jordan – have violated the arms embargo imposed on Libya.
At least 319 people have been killed in Iraq since the start of anti-government protests in October, according to the Iraqi Parliamentary Human Rights Committee.
Four protesters were killed in Baghdad on Saturday after Iraqi Security Forces pushed back hundreds of protesters and burnt several tents that were being used for an overnight sit-in, according to Iraqi activists.
Tunisia’s recently elected President Kais Saied has tasked agricultural engineer Habib Jemli with forming a government after the Ennahdha party nominated him for the prime minister’s job.
Lebanon’s parliament has been postponed after demonstrators blocked roads and prevented politicians from arriving for a first session since protests erupted across the country last month. Tuesday’s parliamentary session was delayed indefinitely “in light of the current extraordinary circumstances,” according to a statement by Adnan Daher, the Secretary-General of the House of Representatives.
The parliamentary meeting was scheduled to discuss a general amnesty law that several protest groups suspect could be exploited by the country’s political elite to absolve themselves of financial crimes.
Tens of thousands of Algerian protesters have rallied in the capital Algiers and cities across the country demanding that a presidential election scheduled for December be cancelled.
Lebanon’s top politicians made their first joint appearance since massive anti-government protests erupted last month, attending a military parade as the country marked 76 years of self-rule on Friday. Protesters staged their own celebrations to mark a first year of “real independence”.
Hezbollah accused the United States of meddling in the formation of a new Lebanese government on Friday, its strongest accusation yet of U.S. interference in Lebanon’s political and economic crisis.
United States Vice President Mike Pence has arrived in Iraq on an unannounced visit to US troops at the al-Asad airbase in Anbar province in the western part of the country rocked by weeks of anti-government protests.
Pence, on his first visit to Iraq, on Saturday also spoke on the phone with the embattled Iraqi Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi and met the president of the autonomous Kurdistan region, Nerchirvan Barzani, in Erbil. According to a source at the premier’s office, the phone call involved a discussion around ways to strengthen bilateral relations between the US and Iraq, and possible solutions to the current crisis in the oil-rich country.
Security forces opened fire on protesters in Baghdad and several cities in southern Iraq on Sunday, killing at least nine people and wounding dozens of others, police and medical sources said, the latest violence in weeks of unrest.
Tunisia’s interior ministry said on Tuesday 11 people were arrested during clashes between protesters and security forces in the central Sidi Bouzid region.
Protests in the town of Jelma started on Saturday, a day after Abdelwaheb Hablani, 25, set himself on fire in the centre of the town in protest against poverty and poor living conditions. He later died in hospital.
The incident echoed the 2010 self-immolation of Mohammed Bouazizi whose death triggered the Arab Spring.
Algeria’s state-owned Sonatrach will block Occidental Petroleum’s deal to sell Anadarko assets in Algeria to Total.
Protesters who have been demonstrating in huge numbers since February for a change in the ruling hierarchy have also marched against the new energy law and chanted slogans opposing Total’s involvement in Algeria.
The United States and Sudan plan to begin exchanging ambassadors again after a 23-year gap, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said in a statement on Wednesday in the latest sign of warming relations between the two countries.
Lebanon’s central bank took emergency measures Wednesday in an attempt to ease the worst financial crisis the country has faced in decades.
The bank imposed a temporary interest-rate cap of 5% on dollar-denominated bank deposits and 8.5% on local-currency deposits received or renewed after Dec. 4. It said the decision must be reflected in the pricing of benchmark lending rates by local banks.
The central bank also said it would temporarily pay 50% of the interest it owed banks for dollar deposits and dollar-denominated certificates of deposits in Lebanese pounds. Banks will also be paying 50% of interest on foreign currency deposits in Lebanese pounds. The measures will be in place for six months.
Consultations to form a new government in Lebanon will formally begin on Monday, the presidency has announced, more than a month after a wave of protests led the prime minister, Saad Hariri, to resign.
Two former prime ministers in Algeria have gone on trial on corruption charges, in the most high-profile act of transparency and accountability since a pro-democracy movement pushed out the long-serving president.
The Algerian authorities have escalated their pre-election crackdown on protests carrying out waves of arbitrary arrests, forcibly dispersing peaceful demonstrations against presidential elections and prosecuting and imprisoning dozens of peaceful activists in recent weeks, said Amnesty International.
Presidential elections are scheduled to take place on 12 December but are widely opposed by demonstrators across Algeria, mostly from the Hirak protest movement.
Iraq’s Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) has reached an agreement with Baghdad on the budget and oil, which includes providing Baghdad 250,000 barrels of oil per day for the first time since 2014, said the region’s finance minister on Thursday in a conference.
Sudan’s former President Omar al-Bashir has been sentenced to two years in detention in a state-run reform centre over financial irregularity and corruption charges in the first of several cases against the leader who was removed after nearly 30 years in power.
Former minister Hassan Diab was named Lebanon’s new prime minister on Thursday with support from the Iran-backed group Hezbollah and its allies, a move that could complicate efforts to secure badly needed Western financial aid.
The nomination sets the stage for the formation of a cabinet that excludes allies of the United States and Sunni Gulf Arab countries while underlining the influence of Iran’s friends in Lebanon.
Diab, a little-known academic with a doctorate in computer engineering, vowed on Thursday to form a government quickly that works to pull the country out of economic crisis and reassures people who have protested against the political class for two months.
Sudan has opened an investigation into crimes committed in the Darfur region by members of the government of former president Omar al-Bashir.
The conflict between pro-government forces and ethnic minority rebels left around 300,000 people dead and 2.5 million displaced, according to the United Nations.
Tunisia’s prime minister-designate Habib Jemli will form a government made up of independents who do not represent political parties, he said at a news conference.
Jemli, who was nominated as prime minister by the moderate Islamist Ennahda party after it took most seats in October’s parliamentary election, asked President Kais Saied for more time to form a government.
The EU has called on forces allied to rival Libyan governments to return to the negotiating table and end the conflict by political means after the entry of Russia and Turkey into the conflict complicated the chances of a resolution.
Iraq’s parliament approved on Tuesday a new electoral law, a key demand of protesters to make elections fairer, but political deadlock is still holding up the selection of an interim prime minister, threatening renewed unrest.
Iranian-backed bloc in Iraq’s parliament on Wednesday nominated Asaad al-Eidani, the governor of the southern province of Basra, as the new prime minister, a move rejected by many protesters who demand a complete overhaul of the political system.
Thousands of Sudanese Christians celebrated in the streets of the capital, where they were joined by activists sending a message of co-existence, as well elsewhere in the country, including rebel strongholds in the southern Nuba mountains.
The holiday was announced by Sudan’s civilian cabinet, which has spoken about improving religious equality after decades of a rule that sidelined minorities.
Turkey signed an accord with Libya’s internationally recognized government last month that seeks to create an exclusive economic zone from Turkey’s southern Mediterranean shore to Libya’s northeast coast.
Ankara says the deal aims to protect its rights under international law, and that it is open to signing similar deals with other states on the basis of “fair sharing” of resources.
Greece and Cyprus, which have long had maritime and territorial disputes with Turkey, say the accord is void and violates the international law of the sea. They see it as a cynical resource-grab designed to scupper the development of East Mediterranean gas and destabilize rivals.
The EU has called on forces allied to rival Libyan governments to return to the negotiating table and end the conflict by political means after the entry of Russia and Turkey into the conflict complicated the chances of a resolution.
The Turkish president has arrived in Tunisia on a surprise visit for talks with his Tunisian counterpart. The visit, the first by a head of state since the Tunisian presidential elections in the autumn, comes as Turkey has ramped up efforts to strike deals with nations on the Mediterranean, where Ankara has been at odds with Greece over resources off the coast of the divided island of Cyprus.
Iraqi President Barham Salid has refused to designate the nominee of an Iran-backed parliamentary bloc for prime minister, saying he would rather resign than appoint someone to the position who would be rejected by protesters.
Libya’s Interior Minister Fathi Bashagha said on Thursday that the UN-recognized Government of National Accord (GNA) will officially demand military aid from Turkey.
Turkey will send troops to Libya at the request of Tripoli as soon as next month, President Erdogan said on Thursday, putting the North African country’s conflict at the center of wider regional frictions.
Libya’s internationally recognized Government of National Accord (GNA) has been struggling to fend off General Khalifa Haftar’s forces from eastern Libya, which have been supported by Russia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Jordan.